Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder that prevents the glucose completely or partially. It is characterized by raised glucose concentration in the blood and alterations ic carbohydrate , protein , and fat metabolism , this can be due to failure in the formation of insulin or liberation or action .
Diabetes mellitus (or diabetes) is a chronic, lifelong condition that affects your body's ability to use the energy found in food.

All types of diabetes mellitus have something in common. Normally, your body breaks down the sugars and carbohydrates you eat into a special sugar called glucose. Glucose fuels the cells in your body. But the cells need insulin, a hormone, in your bloodstream in order to take in the glucose and use it for energy. With diabetes mellitus, either your body doesn't make enough insulin, it can't use the insulin it does produce, or a combination of both. Since the cells can't take in the glucose, it builds up in your blood. High levels of blood glucose can damage the tiny blood vessels in your kidneys, heart, eyes, or nervous system. That's why diabetes -- especially if left untreated -- can eventually cause heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, blindness, and nerve damage to nerves in the feet. There are three main types of diabetes mellitus:

  • Type 1 DM results from the pancreas's failure to produce enough insulin. This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes". T he cause is unknown.

  • Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly. As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop.This form was previously referred to as "non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes". The primary cause is excessive body weight and not enough exercise.

  • Gestational diabetes, is the third main form and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood-sugar levels.

    Normal Blood Sugars

    A normal fasting (no food for eight hours) blood sugar level is between 70 and 100 mg/dL

    A normal blood sugar level two hours after eating is less than 110-140 mg/dL

      The most significant symptoms of diabetes:
    • weight loss
    • polyuria (increased urination),
    • polydipsia (increased thirst), and
    • polyphagia (increased hunger).
    • blurry vision, headache, fatigue, slow healing of cuts, skin rashes(diabetic dermadromes) and itchy skin.
    • Unexplained weight loss
    • Tingling or numbness in the hands or feet
    • Feeling very tired much of the time
    • Frequent infections, such as gums or skin infections and vaginal infections


      Hyperglycemia is the technical term for high blood glucose (blood sugar). High blood glucose happens when the body has too little insulin or when the body can't use insulin properly. What Causes Hyperglycemia?

      A number of things can cause hyperglycemia:

    • If you have type 1, you may not have given yourself enough insulin.
    • If you have type 2, your body may have enough insulin, but it is not as effective as it should be.
    • You ate more than planned or exercised less than planned.
    • You have stress from an illness, such as a cold or flu.
    • You have other stress, such as family conflicts or school or dating problems.
    • You may have experienced the dawn phenomenon (a surge of hormones that the body produces daily around 4:00 a.m. to 5:00 a.m.).

      What are the Symptoms of Hyperglycemia? The signs and symptoms include the following:

    • High blood glucose
    • High levels of sugar in the urine
    • Frequent urination
    • Increased thirst

      Checking your blood and then treating high blood glucose early will help you avoid problems associated with hyperglycemia. What is Hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia, also called low blood glucose or low blood sugar, occurs when blood glucose drops below normal levels. Glucose, an important source of energy for the body, comes from food. Carbohydrates are the main dietary source of glucose. Rice, potatoes, bread, tortillas, cereal, milk, fruit, and sweets are all carbohydrate-rich foods.

      After a meal, glucose is absorbed into the bloodstream and carried to the body's cells. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps the cells use glucose for energy. If a person takes in more glucose than the body needs at the time, the body stores the extra glucose in the liver and muscles in a form called glycogen. The body can use glycogen for energy between meals. Extra glucose can also be changed to fat and stored in fat cells. Fat can also be used for energy. When blood glucose begins to fall, glucagon—another hormone made by the pancreas—signals the liver to break down glycogen and release glucose into the bloodstream. Blood glucose will then rise toward a normal level. In some people with diabetes, this glucagon response to hypoglycemia is impaired and other hormones such as epinephrine, also called adrenaline, may raise the blood glucose level. But with diabetes treated with insulin or pills that increase insulin production, glucose levels can't easily return to the normal range.

      Hypoglycemia can happen suddenly. It is usually mild and can be treated quickly and easily by eating or drinking a small amount of glucose-rich food. If left untreated, hypoglycemia can get worse and cause confusion, clumsiness, or fainting. Severe hypoglycemia can lead to seizures, coma, and even death. In adults and children older than 10 years, hypoglycemia is uncommon except as a side effect of diabetes treatment. Hypoglycemia can also result, however, from other medications or diseases, hormone or enzyme deficiencies, or tumors.

      What are the symptoms of Hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia causes symptoms such as
    • hunger
    • shakiness
    • nervousness
    • sweating
    • dizziness or light-headedness
    • sleepiness
    • confusion
    • difficulty speaking
    • anxiety
    • weakness Hypoglycemia can also happen during sleep. Some signs of hypoglycemia during sleep include
    • crying out or having nightmares
    • finding pajamas or sheets damp from perspiration
    • feeling tired, irritable, or confused after waking up Glucagon
    • If left untreated, hypoglycemia may lead to a seizure or unconsciousness (passing out, a coma). In this case, someone else must take over.
    • Glucagon is a hormone that stimulates your liver to release stored glucose into your bloodstream when your blood glucose levels are too low. Injectable glucagon kits are used as a medication to treat someone with diabetes that has become unconscious from a severe insulin reaction.
    • The people you are in frequent contact with (for example, family members, significant others, and coworkers) should also be instructed on how to administer glucagon to treat severe hypoglycemic events.


      People with diabetes can benefit from education about good nutrition to achieve a normal body weight, and exercise, with the goal of keeping both short-term and long-term blood glucose levels within acceptable bounds. What is a Healthy Diet?

      healthy diet is a way of eating that that reduces risk for complications such as heart disease and stroke.Diet plays a significant role in controlling the diabetes. The diabetic diet may be used alone or else in combination with insulin doses or with oral hypoglycemic drugs. Main objective of diabetic diet is to maintain ideal body weight, by providing adequate nutrition along with normal blood sugar levels in blood.

      In a typical day’s meals and snacks, you should have 1500-1800 calories with – 60% contribution from the carbohydrate, 20% from fat and 20% from proteins. You may need extra weight reduction. If you are on calorie-restricted diet, make sure to take 50-60% of calories as complex carbohydrate (whole cereals) to prevent any feeling of weakness.

    • You should eat a variety of food items everyday. Do not skip meals. Avoid snacks, unless you are advised to (example during insulin treatment). Don’t over eat.
    • Take food on time & Donot skip meal
    • A large meal gives rise to higher blood sugar in one’s body, therefore it is essential to take small frequent meals i.e 5-6 meal a day to prevent both higher and very low blood sugar values and keep them constant.
    • Include lots of salad (30 – 40 gram/day) in your diet like onion,cabbage, radish, sprouts , cucumber ,tomatoes etc but donot include carrot & beat.
    • One teaspoon of soaked methi seeds or methi sprouts or methi powder is very effective in controlling diabetes.
    • Take more fluid in your diet like fat free milk, buttermilk , curd , juices without sugar , green tea, pulse kanji , soups , sugar free tea/coffee etc.
    • Increase intake of dry beans, whole pulses, sprouts, porridge ,oats in your diet.
    • Increase fiber intake in the form of raw fruits, vegetables, whole cereals etc .
    • Apple without pealing,pomegranate , mousambi , orange , jaamun ,papaya can be included in your diet and avoid mango , banana , chikoo, grapes , pineapple ,etc .
    • Add wheat bran to your wheat flour (50% wheat flour + 50% wheat bran). This helps increase fiber in your diet .you can also take multigrain chapattis.
    • Eggs whites to be included .White meat chicken and Fish and shellfish (not battered) are good .
    • Intake of cinnamon , garlic , onion, bitter melon, okra , bottlegourd guar gum is known to considerably reduced blood glucose level .
    • Always avoid junk food , fried foods , alchol , smoking etc.
    • Go for 30 min walk every day or you can do exercise for 20 to 25 mins.
    • In snacks you can include diabetic biscuits , roasted channa , marie biscuits , wheat khaari diet khakhara etc.
    • For breakfast, take Limit your salt (sodium content)
    • Don't select ready to eat and junk foods items available to you
    • Don't smoke and stop alcohol consumption
    • Eat fruits and vegetables. Use less oil in cooking. Avoid fried foods, milk cream or food items cooked in coconut milk.
    • Avoid ready to eat food preparations, sweets and sugary drinks (canned beverages) that provide empty calories (no vitamin or essential minerals).
    • Check your hemoglobin and proteins in blood samples at 6 months or 1 year’s interval, Suitable correction in diet format or supplementation may become necessary.
    • Despite a good control of blood glucose, if your blood lipids are high, you will need lipid lowering drugs regularly. Some times your doctor may advice you lipid-lowering drugs from the beginning of your diabetes treatment.